#1 Starting the project

IMPORTANT UPDATE

I WILL PUBLISH THE FILES OF THIS PROJECT WHEN THE CHANNEL REACHES 1000 SUBSCRIBERS

…

I LEAVE AN UPDATED BUILD FOR YOU TO TRY, IT MAY TAKE A LITTLE WHILE TO LOAD
ūüĒĽ

MOVEMENT: WASD CAMERA LOOK: MOUSE

FROM HERE THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE CONTINUES

Introduction

This is the begin¬≠ning of the Labyrinth series, in which we'll cre¬≠ate a sim¬≠ple pro¬≠to¬≠type of a first-per¬≠son game in which the stage will be a labyrinth, while we see all the tools that Uni¬≠ty has to cre¬≠ate games.

This series is ide¬≠al for those who do not have expe¬≠ri¬≠ence with Uni¬≠ty as it shows a lit¬≠tle of every¬≠thing and with¬≠out going into detail, the pur¬≠pose is rather to observe the entire devel¬≠op¬≠ment process to get a gen¬≠er¬≠al idea.

Go to the project's Main Page

Before we begin, I invite you to watch this video from the My First Game series at Unity.

CHECK OUT THIS CRAZY EXPERIMENT

Creation of the project

When you run Uni¬≠ty or Uni¬≠ty HUB, a win¬≠dow appears in which you can cre¬≠ate new projects, open them and access the tutorials. 

We will cre­ate a new 3D project, give it a name and choose a loca­tion on the disk. Every­thing else is option­al. When every­thing is ready we cre­ate the project

We give it a name and select the 3D template. 

Ventana de inicio de Unity. Crear o cargar un proyecto.ÔĽŅ
Fig. 1: Uni­ty start­up win­dow. Cre­ate or load a project.

The first thing we're going to do is cre¬≠ate a new scene. In this ver¬≠sion of Uni¬≠ty, by default we cre¬≠ate the scene "SampleScene.unity", as seen in the head¬≠er of the pro¬≠gram in Fig¬≠ure 2. 

To cre¬≠ate a new scene click on File > Save Scene As‚Ķ

Menu file de unity3d
Fig. 2: To save a new scene go to File > Save Scene As‚Ķ

We give it a name and keep it. When you do it, you can see in the head¬≠er the name of the new scene.

unity 3d ventana emergente para guardar una escena.
Fig. 3 Pop-up win¬≠dow to save the scene.

Each scene has its own design inde¬≠pen¬≠dent of the oth¬≠ers. For exam¬≠ple we can use one scene for the main menu and anoth¬≠er for the game. 

It's all going to depend on how we want to struc¬≠ture the game.

Creating folders

It's impor­tant to set up an orga­ni­za­tion sys­tem for our Uni­ty game files from the begin­ning, because as we go along we're cre­at­ing more Scripts, import­ing more files and things get clut­tered easily.

All project files are locat­ed in the "Project" win­dow, inside a fold­er called "Assets". This fold­er can be found in the direc­to­ry we defined for the project.

programa unity3d menu para crear una nueva carpeta. crear una nueva carpeta en unity.
Fig. 4: Cre¬≠ate a new fold¬≠er for the project. 

As can be seen in fig­ure 4, right-click­ing dis­plays a menu with dif­fer­ent options, go to the "Cre­ate" option and choose "Fold­er".

We cre­ate as many fold­ers as nec­es­sary to orga­nize our­selves, this part is personal.

Import Packages

To start mak¬≠ing a game in Uni¬≠ty is not nec¬≠es¬≠sary to cre¬≠ate every¬≠thing from scratch, we can use exist¬≠ing libraries to start work¬≠ing on an idea. Next we'll import Uni¬≠ty Pack¬≠ages from the Stan¬≠dard Assets library and the Asset Store.

Standard Assets ‚ÄĒ Unity

In the ver¬≠sion of Uni¬≠ty that I had at the time of record¬≠ing the video, you could import the Stan¬≠dard Assets pack¬≠ages, a library offered by Uni¬≠ty that has dif¬≠fer¬≠ent pre¬≠fab¬≠ri¬≠ca¬≠tions, effects and scripts that are use¬≠ful to start with.

Right-click¬≠ing on the fold¬≠er we have the option "Import Pack¬≠age" where we can choose a pack¬≠age that we have down¬≠loaded using the option "Cus¬≠tom Pack¬≠age" or we can choose a pack¬≠age from Stan¬≠dard Assets. 

If you do not see all the pack¬≠ages as shown in Fig¬≠ure 5, you have the option to down¬≠load them from the Asset Store, but you must have a Uni¬≠ty account to do so. We'll talk about that later.

programa unity3d menu para importar paquetes de la libreria standard assets.
Fig. 5: Import pack­ages from the Stan­dard Assets library.

In this case I will import from Stan­dard Assets the pack­ages "Char­ac­ters", "Par­ti­cleSys­tems" and "Util­i­ty".

With the pack­age "Char­ac­ters" we will be able to place in the stage a pre­fab­ri­cat­ed one that has imple­ment­ed a con­trol in first person.

Par¬≠ti¬≠cleSys¬≠tems brings some inter¬≠est¬≠ing effects to use, such as fire and smoke.

Util­i­ty brings some use­ful scripts like a frames per sec­ond (fps) counter.

Asset Store ‚ÄĒ Unity

Unity's store con¬≠tains an infin¬≠i¬≠ty of Assets, some of them paid and oth¬≠ers free.

To access the shop we use the Uni¬≠ty Asset Store tab, if it is not open, go to Win¬≠dows > Asset Store or use the direct access Ctrl+9. As shown in fig¬≠ure 6.

programa unity3d, ventana windows, está seleccionada la opción asset store.
Fig. 6: Open the Assets shop from the Window.

To use the store we must log into our account (we can do it from Uni­ty). Then using the home screen or the search bar we can explore the content.

In order to see how Asset Store is used we are going to down­load two pack­ages. The first is called "Sky­Box" and the sec­ond "Fast­Mo­bile­Bloom", we use the search bar to find them, in fig­ures 7 and 8 you can see the minia­tures of the packages.

miniatura del paquete skybox de la tienda asset store de unity3d. se observa un cielo de atardecer.
Fig. 7: Sky­box pack­age from the assets store.

miniatura del paquete fastmobilebloom de la tienda asset store de unity3d. se observa una ventana y un cartel de neón azul que dice hotel.
Fig. 8: Fast­Mo­bile­Bloom pack­age from the assets store.

To add them to our project we enter the pack­age and put "Down­load", at the end of the down­load we have the option "Import".

unity3d proceso de descarga de la tienda asset store.
Fig. 9: When enter¬≠ing a pack¬≠age we can down¬≠load and import it, read com¬≠ments and more.

Project hierarchy

With¬≠in each scene all the ele¬≠ments of the game will be defined, that is to say a sce¬≠nario, objects that are part of the world, invis¬≠i¬≠ble objects that serve for the log¬≠ic of the game, graph¬≠i¬≠cal inter¬≠face, etc. All these ele¬≠ments are known as GameOb¬≠jects and will be list¬≠ed in the hier¬≠ar¬≠chy of our project. 

As you can see in fig¬≠ure 10, when cre¬≠at¬≠ing a new scene, we have two GameOb¬≠jects that come by default. A cam¬≠era and a direc¬≠tion¬≠al light.

unity 3d jerarquía de una escena. dos gameobjects.
Fig. 10: Project hier¬≠ar¬≠chy. By default we have a cam¬≠era and a direc¬≠tion¬≠al light.

Let's delete the cam­era and start adding objects to the scenario.

By right click­ing on the hier­ar­chy we have the option to add dif­fer­ent GameOb­jects, e.g. emp­ty objects, prim­i­tives, lights, etc.

unity 3d jerarquía de una escena. creacion de primitivas. creacion de nuevos gameobjects.
Fig. 11: Right-click on the hier­ar­chy to cre­ate new objects.

I'm going to set up a sim­ple stage with a floor plan and some buck­ets and cylinders.

programa unity 3d se observa una escena con un plano.
Fig. 12: Plan cre¬≠at¬≠ed from the hierarchy. 

As we add more objects to the sce­nario the hier­ar­chy grows. It's also rec­om­mend­ed to have a good orga­ni­za­tion from the begin­ning, plac­ing appro­pri­ate names and using Emp­ty GameOb­jects to group the objects.

programa unity3d se observa una escena con un plano, un cubo y dos cilindros.
Fig. 13: Adding objects to the world.

Note fig¬≠ures 14 and 15. In the first one you can see that both cylin¬≠ders are con¬≠tained by the cube, as they are slight¬≠ly to the right and the cube has an arrow to unfold and col¬≠lapse the con¬≠tents. In fig¬≠ure 15, on the oth¬≠er hand, it is observed that they are at the same lev¬≠el, so to speak.

unity 3d jerarquía de una escena. relacion de parentesco entre los gameobjects.
Fig. 14: The cube is the father of the cylinders.

unity 3d jerarquía de una escena. relacion de parentesco entre los gameobjects.
Fig. 15: The hub and cylin¬≠ders are on the same hier¬≠ar¬≠chi¬≠cal level. 

This rep¬≠re¬≠sents the kin¬≠ship that exists between GameOb¬≠jects. In fig¬≠ure 14 it is said that the cube is the father GameOb¬≠ject and both cylin¬≠ders are chil¬≠dren. This implies that the cylin¬≠ders are going to be affect¬≠ed by cer¬≠tain changes that apply to the par¬≠ent. For exam¬≠ple if we deac¬≠ti¬≠vate the cube, both cylin¬≠ders will also be deactivated. 

The same applies to the trans­for­ma­tion com­po­nent, for exam­ple. The posi­tion of the cylin­ders is mea­sured with respect to their par­ent, so if we move the par­ent, the cylin­ders move together.

Materials

To apply col¬≠ors and tex¬≠tures on the objects of the world the mate¬≠ri¬≠als are used. Let's cre¬≠ate some to see how they work. Right click on a project fold¬≠er then Cre¬≠ate > Mate¬≠r¬≠i¬≠al, as shown in fig¬≠ure 16.

programa unity 3d, proceso de creacion de nuevos materiales. shaders.
Fig. 16: Mate­ri­als cre­ation process.

The mate¬≠r¬≠i¬≠al is visu¬≠al¬≠ized as a sphere in which are applied the prop¬≠er¬≠ties of the mate¬≠r¬≠i¬≠al we must assign it a name, as always main¬≠tain the order from the first moment ben¬≠e¬≠fits us in the long term.

programa unity 3d, iconos de materiales.
Fig. 17: Dis­play of the mate­ri­als in the project window.

The mate¬≠ri¬≠als have sev¬≠er¬≠al para¬≠me¬≠ters that define it, in our case we will sim¬≠ply mod¬≠i¬≠fy the col¬≠or by click¬≠ing on the box to the right of "Albe¬≠do". When doing so, a col¬≠or palette appears where we can choose the col¬≠or or write its hexa¬≠dec¬≠i¬≠mal code.

programa unity 3d, visualizacion de las propiedades de un material en el inspector.
Fig. 18: Dis­play of mate­r­i­al prop­er­ties in the inspector.

To apply a mate­r­i­al we sim­ply drag it over the desired object.

programa unity3d se observa una escena con un plano, un cubo y dos cilindros. El plano está pintado de marrón.
Fig. 19: A mate¬≠r¬≠i¬≠al has been applied to the plane.

Lighting

Let's select the direc­tion­al light from the hier­ar­chy or in the scene window.

programa unity3d se observa una escena con un plano, un cubo y dos cilindros. El plano está pintado color marrón, hay dos cilindros azules, uno rojo y un cubo rojo, Además una fuente de luz direccional.
Fig. 20: Mate¬≠ri¬≠als have been applied to all objects in the scene.

Direc­tion­al light is a source of light such as the sun, i.e. sit­u­at­ed in infin­i­ty and send­ing all its par­al­lel rays. For this rea­son mov­ing the source or mak­ing it larg­er does not affect the illu­mi­na­tion of the scene, but chang­ing the rota­tion if it does. We see it in the direc­tion of the shadows.

programa unity3d se observa una escena con un plano, un cubo y dos cilindros. El plano está pintado color marrón, hay dos cilindros azules, uno rojo y un cubo rojo, Además una fuente de luz direccional.
Fig. 21: Rota¬≠tion of the direc¬≠tion¬≠al light, the shad¬≠ows are pro¬≠ject¬≠ed in anoth¬≠er direc¬≠tion if we com¬≠pare with fig¬≠ure 20.

Create a ladder with primitives

Let's do this lit­tle exer­cise to see the ele­ments of Unity's tool­bar, par­tic­u­lar­ly the tools that will allow us to mod­i­fy the Trans­form com­po­nent of GameOb­jects. We start­ed by cre­at­ing a cube in the hierarchy.

programa unity3d barra de herramientas.
Fig. 22: Unity's basic toolbar.

The tools move, rotate and scale are shown in fig­ure 22 in posi­tions 2, 3 and 4 respec­tive­ly and are quick­ly accessed using the "W", "E" and "R" keys (respec­tive­ly).

If we press the R key with the cube select¬≠ed, we can scale it using the "Giz¬≠mo" of the three axes, as shown in fig¬≠ure 23.

programa unity3d, escalar un cubo en una direccion.
Fig. 23: Scal­ing a GameOb­ject in one direction.

We scale it in two direc¬≠tions to give it the appear¬≠ance of a step.

programa unity3d, escalar un cubo en una direccion.

Fig. 24: Scal¬≠ing a GameOb¬≠ject in one direction. 

We apply a mate¬≠r¬≠i¬≠al to it and with the W key we can place the step on the stage.

programa unity3d, escalar un cubo en una direccion y moverlo en la escena.
Fig. 25: Posi¬≠tion¬≠ing of the object in the scene.

We can eas­i­ly dupli­cate the object using the short­cut CTRL+D and with the W key raise it a lit­tle and move it backwards.

programa unity3d, duplicar un gameobject y desplazarlo.
Fig. 26: Dupli¬≠ca¬≠tion of a GameObject. 

We can repeat this process with sev¬≠er¬≠al select¬≠ed steps.

programa unity3d, duplicar un conjunto de gameobjects y desplazarlos.
Fig. 27: Dupli­ca­tion of a set of GameObjects.

Let's cre­ate an Emp­ty GameOb­ject and call it "Sce­nario".

unity 3d jerarquía de una escena. creación de empty gameobjects para organizar.
Fig. 28: Cre­at­ing an Emp­ty GameOb­ject to orga­nize elements.

unity 3d jerarquía de una escena. creación de empty gameobjects para organizar.
Fig. 29: The Emp­ty GameOb­ject is giv­en the name Scenario.

Then we select all the objects and drag them to this new object to group them. In this way we can col¬≠lapse the whole con¬≠tent and the hier¬≠ar¬≠chy is more order¬≠ly, as shown in fig¬≠ure 30.

unity 3d jerarquía de una escena. creación de empty gameobjects para organizar.
Fig. 30: All GameOb­jects on the stage are dragged into the Emp­ty GameOb­ject and the con­tent collapses.

First-Person Controller

The rea­son why we pre­vi­ous­ly removed the cam­era is because we are going to place the pre­fab­ri­cat­ed "FPSCon­troller" from Stan­dard Assets on the scene and it already has a built-in cam­era. This pre­fab is locat­ed in the direc­to­ry Stan­dard Assets > Char­ac­ters > First­Per­son­Char­ac­ter > Prefabs.

programa unity. prefabricado de un control primera persona.
Fig. 31: Pre­fab FPSCon­troller of the Stan­dard Assets Char­ac­ters package.

We take it to the scene and put it where we like.

programa unity3d. se observa una escena con suelo marrón, una escalera azul, dos cilindros rojos y dos cilindros azules.
Fig. 32: The FPSCon¬≠troller pre¬≠fab is placed in the scene.

Bugs

We are already able to do some tests, in the top cen¬≠ter we have three buttons. 

The Play but¬≠ton is used to start run¬≠ning the game. The sec¬≠ond but¬≠ton paus¬≠es the game but does not end it. The third but¬≠ton is used to advance a sin¬≠gle frame in the game.

Press¬≠ing the Play but¬≠ton dis¬≠plays an error sign say¬≠ing that all errors must be fixed before you can enter game mode.

programa unity3d. se observa una escena con suelo marrón, una escalera azul, dos cilindros rojos y dos cilindros azules. En el centro un cartel que dice: "All compiler errors have to be fixed before you can enter playmode".
Fig. 33: When try­ing to enter game mode an error mes­sage appears.

This is a prob­lem that we are going to encounter very often, espe­cial­ly at the begin­ning and it is usu­al­ly very frus­trat­ing, even more so if we are learn­ing to program.

To get infor¬≠ma¬≠tion about what is hap¬≠pen¬≠ing we have the "Con¬≠sole" win¬≠dow. If it is not open, you can find it in the "Win¬≠dow" menu.

programa unity3d, consola de unity mostrando advertencias en amarillo.
Fig. 34: Sev­er­al warn­ings with a yel­low sign are dis­played on the console.

In fig­ure 34 we see a large num­ber of warn­ings but this does not affect the oper­a­tion of the game, are sug­ges­tions for opti­miz­ing the code, warn­ings for use of obso­lete code and so on. If only we had warn­ings we could enter the game mode with­out problem.

Fig¬≠ure 35 is a screen¬≠shot after click¬≠ing the "Clear" but¬≠ton, this clears the warn¬≠ings and lets you see the errors that can¬≠not be over¬≠looked in order to enter the game mode. These are shown with a Red sign.

programa unity3d, consola de unity mostrando errores en rojo.
Fig. 35: The con¬≠sole dis¬≠plays an error mes¬≠sage with a red sign.

There is not much infor­ma­tion about the error but it is enough for us to under­stand that there is a file that is not found. If we look at the address we see that it is relat­ed to the Stan­dard Assets pack­age and we see that its address begins with "Assets > Stan­dard Assets > …". In the video we made a fold­er called "Exter­nal Pack­ages" and inside it we put the Stan­dard Assets package.

Every¬≠thing seems to indi¬≠cate that there is some process that is look¬≠ing for Stan¬≠dard Assets files but inside the Assets fold¬≠er, not the Exter¬≠nal Pack¬≠ages fold¬≠er, so I move the Stan¬≠dard Assets fold¬≠er to the Assets fold¬≠er and the error is fixed. Now if we are able to enter the game mode.

programa unity3d, cambio de lugar de las carpetas del proyecto.
Fig. 36: The Stan­dard Assets pack­age is tak­en to the Assets fold­er of the project.

Testing the game at Unity

The pre¬≠fab FPS Con¬≠troller works like a stan¬≠dard first-per¬≠son game. Move for¬≠ward, back¬≠ward, side¬≠ways with WASD keys or arrows. Jump with space bar, with Shift you can run. With the mouse you can con¬≠trol the view and it has the sound of steps. It's a good start¬≠ing point to start form¬≠ing an idea.

programa unity3d, modo juego, prueba de una escena en la que se ve el suelo marrón, cielo celeste, una escalera azul, un cilindro azul y un cilindro rojo.
Fig. 37: After cor­rect­ing the errors, the game mode can be entered.

Build the project

Now we will gen­er­ate a stand­alone ver­sion of the project, ie a set of fold­ers and exe­cutable file that can run on our oper­at­ing sys­tem with­out hav­ing the Uni­ty engine open.

Go to the File tab and click on Build Set­tings to con­fig­ure the com­pi­la­tion parameters.

programa unity3d, ventana file con la opcion build settings seleccionada.
Fig. 38: To make a com­pi­la­tion click on File > Build Settings.

We get the win­dow illus­trat­ed in fig­ure 39, there we can select the tar­get platform.

If you look at the top is where the game scenes are list­ed. At that time we don't have any scenes added to the compilation.

programa unity3d, ventana build settings. no hay ninguna escena agregada a la compilación.
Fig. 39: Win¬≠dow with com¬≠pi¬≠la¬≠tion para¬≠me¬≠ters. No scenes have been added.

By click¬≠ing on the Add Open Scenes but¬≠ton we are going to add the scene we were work¬≠ing on through¬≠out the video. As you can see in fig¬≠ure 40.

programa unity3d, ventana build settings. hay unaescena agregada a la compilación.
Fig. 40: Com¬≠pi¬≠la¬≠tion win¬≠dow. The scene in which we work has been added.

Now all that's left is to click on Build And Run and choose the fold­er where to place the gen­er­at­ed files. At the end of the com­pi­la­tion process the game runs and a win­dow appears in which we can select the res­o­lu­tion and qual­i­ty. Press the Play! but­ton and the game starts.

ejecución de una versión standalone de un proyecto en unity. ventana para seleccionar resolución y calidad.
Fig. 41: Game start win­dow. You can choose the res­o­lu­tion and quality.

Conclusion

In this arti­cle we saw the first steps in start­ing a game at Uni­ty. We put empha­sis on orga­ni­za­tion, which will ben­e­fit us in the long run in development.

We saw the scenes of Uni­ty, each scene is a world apart and con­tains a cer­tain amount of ele­ments or GameOb­jects that are list­ed in the hier­ar­chy of the project.

We import files from both the Stan¬≠dard Assets library and the Asset Store. At the begin¬≠ning the most impor¬≠tant thing is to try to give form to the ideas that we have, for this the assets of the book¬≠stores facil¬≠i¬≠tate the things to us.

We saw some­thing about the par­entship that exists between GameOb­jects and how changes applied to a par­ent object also impact their child objects.

We cre­ate mate­ri­als that give col­or and tex­ture to objects.

The direc­tion­al light source serves us to illu­mi­nate a scene as the sun would, the shad­ows will be pro­ject­ed accord­ing to the rota­tion that this light source has.

We made a sim­ple lad­der using the prim­i­tives that can be cre­at­ed with Uni­ty and apply­ing trans­for­ma­tions to them, that is to say changes of scale, rota­tion and position.

We place the Stan¬≠dard Assets pre¬≠fab¬≠ri¬≠cat¬≠ed "FPSCon¬≠troller" which is a first per¬≠son con¬≠trol. Quick¬≠ly we already have a char¬≠ac¬≠ter that can go around the stage, run and jump.

In the process there were bugs that we had to fix in order to get into game mode. Debug¬≠ging errors is a dif¬≠fi¬≠cult task when we start pro¬≠gram¬≠ming, but with prac¬≠tice we make few¬≠er mis¬≠takes and it's eas¬≠i¬≠er to cor¬≠rect them.

Final­ly we made an exe­cutable com­pi­la­tion from the oper­at­ing sys­tem. There are a lot of plat­forms to which we can export our game in Uni­ty. In prin­ci­ple we are going to export to Win­dows and Android.

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